The Challenge of Recovering Stuck Debts in Bangladesh’s Banking Sector: Decoding the Complexities of the 2.12 Lakh Crore BDT Debt Cases


The Challenge of Recovering Stuck Debts in Bangladesh’s Banking Sector: Decoding the Complexities of the 2.12 Lakh Crore BDT Debt Cases

Amidst the complex tapestry of the financial sector in Bangladesh, the banking sector finds itself caught in a daunting challenge, grappling with a total debt of Tk 2 lakh 12 thousand crore involving banks and financial institutions in a wide variety of cases. This staggering sum not only poses a substantial threat to the economic stability of the country but also brings the resilience of the banking sector under scrutiny. Despite concerted efforts to stimulate recovery through Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), the response has been paltry, creating a pressing need to unravel the complexities surrounding debt recovery in this complex landscape.

This article serves as a prism, which reflects light on the multifaceted challenges facing the banking sector in Bangladesh. It explores the nuances of the current state of debt recovery, disentangling complexities that hamper the resolution process. The role of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is highlighted, presenting it as a potential beacon for navigating the maze of financial disputes. Against this backdrop, the article extends its focus to the recent discussion at a bankers’ meeting held at Bangladesh Bank, unraveling the upcoming challenges discussed therein. As stakeholders gather to chart a course forward, the article seeks to illuminate the contours of this financial landscape, providing insight into the path towards a stronger and more resilient banking sector.

  1. The Vastness of Pending Debts:

The financial landscape of Bangladesh stands under the immense shadow of a daunting challenge, with the banking sector grappling with the staggering weight of unresolved debts. As of the most recent September, an astronomical figure, totaling 2 lakh 12 thousand 157 crores, is ensnared in a complex network of unresolved cases that spans the entirety of the nation. This monumental sum is not confined to the courtroom battles alone but extends its far-reaching financial tendrils into the intricate web of diverse financial institutions. The sheer magnitude of this accumulating debt crisis emerges as a looming threat, casting a formidable shadow over the stability and resilience of the entire banking sector.

The gravity of these unresolved financial obligations extends beyond the immediate challenge faced by financial institutions. It underscores the scale of the predicament at hand, raising profound concerns about potential ripple effects that may permeate the broader economic fabric of the country. The stability of the banking sector, a linchpin in the nation’s financial architecture, now confronts a pressing imperative — the need for a comprehensive and effective resolution strategy. As the banking sector shoulders the colossal burden of these debts, the call for a proactive, multifaceted approach becomes increasingly urgent to not only ensure the sector’s stability but also fortify the foundational pillars of the nation’s overall financial health.

2. The Inefficacy of Conventional Legal Channels:

The traditional path of resolving financial disputes through court proceedings has unfolded as a lamentably protracted and convoluted process. A meticulous examination of the statistics lays bare a disconcerting reality – despite a reduction in the number of cases between July and September, the cumulative amount of frozen funds surged dramatically by an alarming 2 thousand 701 crores. This paradoxical scenario serves as a poignant illustration of the ineffectiveness inherent in the conventional approach when confronted with the burgeoning financial challenges of the modern era.

The pressing need for a paradigm shift is palpable, underlined by the urgency for a more streamlined, efficient, and responsive mechanism for debt recovery. The statistics provide an undeniable impetus for a departure from the traditional norm, emphasizing the critical importance of adopting innovative and expeditious debt resolution methods. As the banking sector grapples with the repercussions of this inefficacy, the imperative to revamp the current approach becomes all the more pressing. The dynamism of the financial landscape demands a responsive and forward-thinking strategy, one that aligns with the evolving demands of the sector, and facilitates a more effective, transparent, and expeditious resolution of financial disputes.

  1. Advocating for Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR):

In the aftermath of a recent bankers’ meeting, a spotlight has been cast on the challenges encountered in deploying Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) for the recovery of outstanding debts. The report unveiled during the meeting illuminates the stumbling blocks that have impeded the success of ADR initiatives, primarily the scarcity of qualified mediators and the persistence of unresolved disagreements. This revelation emphasizes the need for a strategic recalibration of the approach towards ADR to bolster its efficacy in navigating the complexities of debt recovery.

To mitigate these challenges, financial institutions are strongly urged to leverage established entities such as the Bangladesh International Arbitration Center (BIAC). The role of such institutions in providing a structured and neutral ground for mediating financial disputes becomes paramount. By tapping into the expertise and resources offered by institutions like BIAC, banks can cultivate a more conducive environment for effective resolution. This proactive call to action seeks to harness the potential of ADR, reinforcing its stature as a viable and potent tool in the arsenal of debt recovery strategies for the banking sector.

  1. Strengthening Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR):

Insights from the Central Bank’s Report In a bid to fortify the effectiveness of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in the realm of debt recovery, the central bank has proposed a series of strategic measures, as unveiled in its recent report. The recommendations serve as a roadmap, charting a course toward a more robust and efficient ADR framework tailored to the unique challenges faced by the banking sector.

One significant proposal encourages banks to adopt a proactive approach by issuing prior notices of payment before resorting to legal action. This pre-emptive measure not only signals the seriousness of intent but also sets the stage for potential resolutions through ADR. Furthermore, the central bank advocates for financial incentives to expedite settlements, with banks empowered to offer discounts as a means of encouraging prompt payment. This mutually beneficial strategy not only expedites the debt recovery process but also cultivates an environment conducive to cooperative resolution.

The central bank’s report also underscores the pivotal role of specialized institutions such as the Bangladesh International Arbitration Center (BIAC). By leveraging the expertise of BIAC or appointing qualified individuals, including retired judges, bank officers, and lawyers, as mediators, the banking sector can inject a level of expertise and neutrality into the ADR process. These proposed solutions, when implemented collectively, present a comprehensive strategy aimed at enhancing the efficiency and success of ADR in navigating the intricate landscape of debt recovery for the banking sector.

  1. Evaluating ADR Engagement: Bridging the Disparity

The recently released report accentuates a significant contrast in the utilization of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) compared to the traditional avenue of court proceedings. Up until June, a mere 13 thousand 199 cases found their way into the ADR system, with a resolution rate of 10 thousand 545 cases, involving a substantially lower monetary sum of 996 crores. This striking discrepancy serves as a clarion call, underlining the imperative for a renewed and concerted effort in promoting ADR as a potent and viable mechanism for debt recovery within the financial sector.

The data presented in the report not only reveals the disparity in engagement between ADR and traditional court proceedings but also points to the underutilization of ADR’s potential in resolving financial disputes. The comparatively lower number of cases and involved funds settled through ADR signifies an untapped resource that, if harnessed effectively, could expedite the debt recovery process and alleviate the burden on the banking sector. This comparative picture thus serves as a catalyst for a strategic shift in focus, urging stakeholders to invest in the promotion and adoption of ADR as a cornerstone in the arsenal of debt recovery mechanisms, fostering efficiency and effectiveness in navigating the complex landscape of financial disputes.

  1. Assessing the Health of the Banking Sector: Contemplating Compulsory Mergers

The recent meeting, tasked with addressing the financial challenges confronting the banking sector, has hinted at consequential implications if the current financial trajectory remains unaltered. In the absence of tangible improvements in the financial condition of banks, the meeting suggests a revisitation of the compulsory merger policy as a potential recourse. This proposal gains significance given the backdrop of the recently issued Prompt Corrective Action (PCA) framework and the implementation of expedited corrective measures, setting the stage for the contemplation of compulsory mergers with potential effectiveness from March of the following year.

The envisaged compulsory mergers are anticipated to be underpinned by a comprehensive categorization system within the banking sector. Factors such as capital strength, non-performing loans, corporate governance, and liquidity are earmarked as crucial parameters for this categorization. In this prospective framework, banks found to be in poorer financial health will likely face stricter restrictions, reflecting a tiered approach tailored to the varying degrees of financial robustness within the sector. The implications of these proposed measures reverberate beyond the boardrooms of financial institutions, signaling a collective effort to safeguard the stability and resilience of the banking sector, thereby fortifying the economic backbone of the nation.


The challenges looming over Bangladesh’s banking sector, entangled in the complexities of recovering stuck debts, are undeniably substantial. The need for a strategic shift towards more efficient mechanisms, notably Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), emerges as a pivotal solution in navigating the intricate web of financial disputes. As the recent meeting convened at Bangladesh Bank delves into these challenges, it underscores the imperative for collective action among the sector’s stakeholders.

The efficacy of Alternative Dispute Resolution stands as a beacon of hope in streamlining the debt recovery process. The meeting serves as a crucible where the nuanced intricacies of financial disputes are examined, and solutions are sought to fortify the banking sector. It is incumbent upon stakeholders to collaboratively forge a path towards a healthier financial environment. This journey involves not only the adoption of effective debt recovery practices but also a holistic commitment to improved governance within the sector. By aligning efforts towards these goals, Bangladesh’s banking sector can emerge from its current challenges resilient and fortified, poised to contribute robustly to the broader economic landscape.


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