Breathing Easy: A Comprehensive Approach to Mitigating Dhaka’s Air Pollution Crisis



Dhaka’s Air Pollution Crisis

The Specter of escalating air pollution has transcended geographical boundaries to become a critical global concern, and nowhere is its impact more palpable than in Dhaka, the vibrant capital of Bangladesh. Recent revelations from the Air Quality Index (AQI) report have cast a shadow over the city, positioning it as the second most polluted among 109 cities worldwide. This stark reality propels us into a realm of urgency where understanding the historical context, assessing the current scenario, and formulating effective solutions becomes imperative to safeguard the well-being of Dhaka’s residents and the broader environment.

The gravity of Dhaka’s air quality crisis is underscored by the striking elevation of its AQI ranking, reflecting a confluence of factors that demand careful examination. To truly appreciate the depth of the issue, it is essential to navigate through the annals of Dhaka’s history, marked by rapid urbanization and industrial expansion. These trajectories have ushered in unprecedented growth but have also sown the seeds of an environmental challenge that now manifests as alarming air pollution levels.

The geographical proximity to neighboring countries, notably India, further entwines Dhaka’s fate with the shared struggles of cities like Delhi, a global hotspot for air quality issues. The recent AQI report, with Dhaka ranking second globally, illuminates not only the gravity of the problem but also the urgency to comprehend its historical roots and present manifestations. This introspection sets the stage for a comprehensive exploration into the current scenario, a snapshot of Dhaka’s air quality at a specific juncture in time.

As we stand at this juncture, it is not merely an exercise in identifying a city grappling with air pollution; it is a call to action. The need to delve into the historical context and understand the nuances of the current scenario becomes the foundation upon which we can construct robust solutions. The residents of Dhaka, like those in any major urban center worldwide, deserve an environment that nurtures their well-being and ensures a sustainable future. In the subsequent sections, we will unravel the layers of history, dissect the contemporary scenario, and propose actionable solutions aimed at steering Dhaka towards a breathable, healthier future.

Historical Context:

Dhaka, a city with a rich history and a dynamic present, grapples with the pervasive issue of air pollution, a challenge deeply embedded in the intricate tapestry of its development. The roots of this struggle extend back to a period of rapid urbanization and industrial expansion that transformed Dhaka into a bustling metropolis. As the city burgeoned with vitality and economic activity, the unintended consequences of this progress began to unfold, prominently in the form of deteriorating air quality.

The exponential growth witnessed by Dhaka brought with it a surge in vehicular emissions, a natural byproduct of the increasing number of vehicles navigating its expanding roadways. With urbanization and economic development at the forefront, industries also mushroomed, contributing substantially to the discharge of pollutants into the atmosphere. The synergy of these factors created a perfect storm, amplifying the concentration of harmful substances in the air and setting the stage for the contemporary air quality crisis.

In the quest for modernity, Dhaka’s skyline witnessed the rise of factories, power plants, and other industrial entities. While these establishments fueled economic progress, they concurrently became sources of emissions, releasing pollutants such as particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) into the air. These pollutants, once released, interact with the atmosphere, compromising air quality and posing a significant threat to public health.

The geographical proximity to neighboring countries, notably India, adds an additional layer of complexity to Dhaka’s air quality predicament. India, with its densely populated cities and ongoing struggle with air pollution, shares common challenges with Dhaka. Cities like Delhi have consistently grappled with severe air quality issues, creating a regional dynamic where shared environmental concerns transcend borders. The atmospheric currents that carry pollutants do not recognize political boundaries, making air pollution a collective challenge that necessitates collaborative solutions.

In essence, Dhaka’s historical journey, marked by urbanization and industrialization, has shaped its current struggle with air pollution. The unintended consequences of progress have intertwined with the broader regional context, intensifying the challenges faced by the city. Understanding this historical context is not just an academic exercise; it forms the bedrock upon which comprehensive solutions can be constructed, acknowledging the interconnectedness of urban development, industrial growth, and the environmental health of Dhaka.

Current Scenario:

The snapshot of Dhaka’s air quality, as captured by the Air Quality Index (AQI) report at 8:50 am on a specific Saturday, unveils a disconcerting reality. The recorded air pollution score of 251 categorizes the air as ‘very unhealthy,’ casting a somber shadow over the city’s atmospheric conditions. This numerical representation is not merely a statistical data point; it is a stark testament to the immediate health risks faced by the residents of Dhaka due to the air they breathe.

The AQI score, an objective measure of air quality, serves as a poignant indicator of the severity of the issue at hand. A score of 251 catapults Dhaka into the ‘very unhealthy’ category, signifying a state where the air poses serious health risks to all residents, particularly those in sensitive groups such as children, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing health conditions. This alarming classification demands urgent attention and underscores the pressing need for mitigation strategies to safeguard public health.

This distressing scenario resonates with a broader global trend, where megacities like Delhi and Kolkata grapple with comparable air pollution challenges. The echoes of polluted air reverberate across borders, transcending geographical boundaries. To truly comprehend the gravity of the situation faced by Dhaka, it is imperative to recognize the transboundary nature of air pollution. The atmospheric currents do not adhere to geopolitical lines, carrying pollutants seamlessly across regions. Thus, the shared challenges faced by Dhaka find resonance with neighboring cities and nations, creating a network of interconnected environmental concerns.

In this interconnected web of air quality challenges, the need for collaborative solutions becomes paramount. Dhaka’s struggle is not isolated; it is part of a larger narrative where urban centers across the globe grapple with the consequences of industrialization, urbanization, and vehicular emissions. Recognizing this shared predicament opens avenues for collective action and international cooperation to address the root causes of air pollution.

As the AQI report serves as a clarion call for attention, it also serves as a rallying point for collaborative efforts. Dhaka, Delhi, Kolkata, and cities worldwide facing similar challenges are not just individual entities navigating their air quality crises in isolation. They are interconnected, and so must be the strategies devised to combat the shared menace of air pollution. In the subsequent sections, we will explore how acknowledging this interconnectedness can pave the way for effective solutions and chart a course towards cleaner, healthier urban environments.

Comparative Analysis:

The comparative analysis of Air Quality Index (AQI) scores among global cities presents a sobering perspective on the magnitude of the air pollution crisis. Delhi, securing the unenviable first position with an AQI score of 303, epitomizes the severity of the challenges faced by urban centers in the Indian subcontinent. Kolkata, not far behind, secures the third position with an AQI of 238, further accentuating the regional nature of this predicament. These scores, alongside Dhaka’s own distressing AQI of 251, underscore the shared challenges among cities in this geographical proximity.

The stark reality of high AQI scores in these cities points to a transboundary crisis, necessitating collaborative efforts and joint solutions. The atmospheric currents that carry pollutants seamlessly traverse national borders, rendering air pollution a collective challenge that demands a unified response. The high pollution levels in Delhi and Kolkata serve as a clarion call for regional cooperation, encouraging neighboring cities to pool resources, share expertise, and collectively address the root causes of air pollution.

Conversely, shining examples from cities like Milan, Nagoya, and Sydney present a counter-narrative, showcasing the potential for positive change and effective mitigation strategies. Milan and Nagoya, with AQI scores as low as 4 in the morning, exemplify the transformative impact of stringent environmental policies and sustainable urban planning. Sydney, with an exemplary AQI score of 10, serves as a beacon of inspiration, demonstrating that clean air is an achievable reality with concerted efforts.

The juxtaposition of cities facing severe air pollution challenges with those boasting pristine air quality illustrates a spectrum of possibilities. It delineates the line between cities burdened by the consequences of rapid industrialization and those reaping the rewards of visionary environmental policies. This comparative analysis is not just an exercise in numerical distinctions; it is a roadmap for cities like Dhaka to chart a course toward cleaner air and a healthier future.

The experiences of Milan, Nagoya, and Sydney underscore that effective measures, such as stringent emission controls, sustainable urban planning, and public awareness campaigns, can usher in a paradigm shift. These cities have demonstrated that the battle against air pollution can be won with a combination of political will, community engagement, and international cooperation.

As we delve into proposed solutions for Dhaka, it is crucial to draw inspiration from these success stories. The comparative analysis serves as both a cautionary tale and a source of motivation, emphasizing that while the challenges are formidable, the potential for positive change is equally significant. By weaving together the lessons learned from both sides of the spectrum, cities facing air quality crises can aspire to emulate the success stories, fostering a global movement toward cleaner, healthier urban environments.

Here is proposed  HOW  can solution these problems:

Proposed Solutions:

1.Stricter Emission Controls:

Dhaka’s endeavor to combat air pollution hinges on the meticulous implementation and continual enhancement of stringent emission controls. The city must establish and enforce robust standards for industries and vehicular emissions, aligning with the latest advancements in emission-reducing technologies. Regular reviews and updates to these standards ensure that Dhaka stays at the forefront of environmental protection, actively curbing the release of pollutants into the atmosphere. By fostering a culture of compliance and innovation, the city can significantly reduce its contribution to air pollution.

2.Promotion of Public Transport:

A pivotal strategy to alleviate the strain on air quality in Dhaka involves a paradigm shift in transportation patterns. Encouraging the populace to embrace public transportation, cycling, and walking represents not only a sustainable alternative but a transformative approach. Dhaka should invest in the development of efficient, accessible, and extensive public transit systems. The creation of dedicated cycling lanes and the enhancement of pedestrian infrastructure will not only reduce vehicular emissions but also promote a healthier lifestyle. This integrated approach addresses both the immediate air quality concerns and fosters a more sustainable, livable urban environment for the future.

3.Green Spaces and Urban Planning:

Dhaka’s urban landscape can be redefined through strategic investments in green spaces and sustainable urban planning. The city should prioritize the creation and preservation of parks, green belts, and urban greenery. These areas act as natural lungs for the city, absorbing pollutants and enhancing overall air quality. Integrating green spaces into urban planning not only mitigates the impact of air pollution but also contributes to biodiversity, urban cooling, and the overall well-being of residents. Dhaka’s evolution into a greener, more sustainable city will require thoughtful urban planning that balances development with environmental preservation.

4.International Cooperation:

Recognizing that air pollution knows no borders, Dhaka must actively seek international cooperation to address this shared challenge. Collaborating with neighboring countries facing similar air quality issues provides an avenue for collective solutions. Dhaka should engage in knowledge-sharing initiatives, exchange best practices, and coordinate efforts to create a unified front against air pollution. Joint research projects, technology transfers, and harmonized policies can amplify the impact of individual endeavors. An international coalition committed to tackling air quality concerns fosters a sense of shared responsibility and reinforces the notion that cleaner air is a collective goal transcending geopolitical boundaries.

5.Public Awareness Campaigns:

In the arsenal against air pollution, an informed and engaged public is a potent force. Dhaka should invest in comprehensive public awareness campaigns that go beyond highlighting the urgency of the issue. These campaigns should educate residents about the direct health impacts of air pollution and empower them to be active contributors to the solution. Promoting sustainable practices, reducing energy consumption, and supporting eco-friendly initiatives should be central themes. By fostering a sense of environmental responsibility and encouraging behavioral changes, Dhaka can cultivate a groundswell of support for cleaner air and a healthier urban environment.

In essence, these proposed solutions collectively form a dynamic strategy tailored to Dhaka’s unique challenges. Through the judicious implementation of these measures, the city can transcend its current air quality crisis, fostering a sustainable, resilient urban environment that prioritizes the health and well-being of its residents. The interplay of regulatory frameworks, public engagement, and international collaboration lays the foundation for Dhaka’s transformation into a city where the air is not just a necessity but a source of vitality.


Dhaka stands at a critical juncture, facing the urgent imperative to address its escalating air pollution crisis. The challenges posed by this environmental threat necessitate immediate and concerted efforts from all stakeholders, from policymakers and industries to the citizens who call this vibrant city home. Drawing insights from successful global endeavors and adopting effective policies tailored to Dhaka’s unique context can set the stage for a more sustainable and resilient urban future.

In the face of shared challenges, international cooperation emerges not merely as a beneficial option but as an essential pathway to success. Air pollution, a challenge that knows no borders, demands collaborative solutions that transcend geopolitical boundaries. A united front forged through cooperation with neighboring countries and global partners can amplify the impact of Dhaka’s initiatives and contribute to a broader, region-wide commitment to combatting air pollution.

As Dhaka envisions a cleaner, greener future, the proposed solutions outlined in this discourse serve as a roadmap for transformative change. The time to act is undeniably now, and the proposed strategies—ranging from stricter emission controls and sustainable urban planning to public awareness campaigns—form a comprehensive toolkit for the city’s journey toward environmental rejuvenation.

Embracing these solutions is more than a strategic imperative; it is a collective commitment to a higher quality of life for the residents of Dhaka. Clean air is not just a necessity but a fundamental right, and through concerted efforts, the city can redefine its urban narrative. By prioritizing sustainability, fostering international collaboration, and engaging the public in the journey towards cleaner air, Dhaka can embark on a transformative path. This journey is not merely an environmental necessity; it is a promise to future generations—a promise of a city where the air is pristine, the environment is vibrant, and the well-being of its inhabitants is prioritized.

The transformative journey towards a healthier and more sustainable urban environment is within reach. Dhaka, by heeding the call to action and implementing these solutions, can become a beacon of inspiration for cities around the world. It is not just a vision; it is an attainable reality—one where residents can breathe easy and enjoy a higher quality of life, ultimately defining the success of Dhaka’s commitment to a cleaner, greener future.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here