Rohingya Issue and Present Conditions


  Rohingya Issue and Present Conditions   

Rohingya Issue


The Rohingya issue has been one
of the most protracted and dire humanitarian crises of the 21st century.
Originating in Myanmar, it has escalated into a regional and global concern,
challenging governments, international organizations, and civil society alike.
This article delves into the complexities of the Rohingya problem, explores its
historical context, and offers potential solutions to address this crisis.

The Rohingya issue, originating
in Myanmar’s Rakhine State, has evolved into a multifaceted and deeply rooted
crisis that has captured the world’s attention. This humanitarian emergency has
proven to be one of the most protracted and dire of the 21st century, with
far-reaching consequences that extend well beyond Myanmar’s borders. It poses
an enduring challenge to governments, international organizations, and civil
society, demanding an intricate and nuanced response.

To understand the complexities of
the Rohingya crisis, it is imperative to delve into its historical context. The
roots of the problem can be traced back to the British colonial era when labor
migration brought people from the Indian subcontinent to Burma, as Myanmar was
then known. After Myanmar gained independence in 1948, successive governments
began systematically marginalizing the Rohingya, gradually stripping them of
their citizenship rights and recognition as an ethnic group. This deliberate
exclusion marked the beginning of a long and painful history of discrimination,
persecution, and violence against the Rohingya community, ultimately leading to
the devastating crisis we witness today.

Understanding the Rohingya

The Rohingya issue is a complex and longstanding crisis that has garnered international attention due to its human rights implications. The roots of the problem can be traced back to historical, ethnic, and religious tensions within Myanmar, formerly known as Burma.

The Rohingya people, numbering around 1.1 million, have faced systemic discrimination for decades. The Myanmar government’s refusal to recognize them as citizens, classifying them as illegal immigrants from Bangladesh, has left them stateless and vulnerable. This denial of citizenship has severe consequences, as it restricts the Rohingya’s access to education, healthcare, and employment, pushing them to the fringes of society.

The religious dimension of the conflict, with the Rohingya being predominantly Muslim in a Buddhist-majority country, has further exacerbated their marginalization. The rise of Buddhist nationalism in Myanmar has fueled anti-Muslim sentiments, contributing to the persecution of the Rohingya. The government’s policies and actions have created an environment where discrimination, segregation, and violence against the Rohingya have become normalized.

One of the most significant turning points in recent years was the outbreak of violence in Rakhine State in 2017. The Myanmar military launched a brutal crackdown in response to attacks by a Rohingya insurgent group, resulting in widespread atrocities. The military’s actions, including mass killings, sexual violence, and the burning of villages, forced hundreds of thousands of Rohingya to flee to neighbouring Bangladesh, creating a humanitarian crisis of enormous proportions.

The international community, human rights organizations, and various governments have condemned Myanmar’s treatment of the Rohingya. Calls for accountability and justice have been widespread, with accusations of genocide and crimes against humanity being levelled against the military and government officials. The International Court of Justice (ICJ) and the International Criminal Court (ICC) have initiated legal proceedings to address the alleged atrocities committed against the Rohingya.

The displacement of Rohingya refugees has strained relations between Myanmar and Bangladesh, as well as raised broader questions about the responsibility of the international community in addressing refugee crises. The Rohingya issue remains a significant challenge for the global community, requiring diplomatic efforts, humanitarian assistance, and a commitment to human rights to achieve a sustainable and just resolution.

In summary, the Rohingya issue is a multifaceted crisis rooted in historical, ethnic, and religious tensions. The systematic discrimination by the Myanmar government has led to the marginalization and persecution of the Rohingya, with the 2017 violence exacerbating an already dire situation. International pressure continues to mount as efforts are made to address the human rights abuses and work toward a lasting solution for the Rohingya people.

Historical Roots of the

The historical roots of the Rohingya issue can be traced back to the British colonial period, which played a crucial role in shaping the demographic and political landscape of what is now Myanmar. During the colonial era, labor migration patterns led to the movement of people from the Indian subcontinent, including the region that is present-day Bangladesh, to various parts of Southeast Asia, including Burma.

The British colonial administration, seeking to meet the labor demands of its economic activities, encouraged the migration of workers to different parts of the empire. As a result, a significant number of people from the Indian subcontinent, including a Muslim community that later became known as the Rohingya, settled in the Arakan region, now called Rakhine State, in Burma.

However, the delineation of borders and the demarcation of identities during the decolonization process in 1948 had profound implications for these communities. The newly independent Burmese government, eager to establish a unified national identity, began excluding the Rohingya from the narrative of the nation. This exclusion was marked by the 1982 Citizenship Law, which denied the Rohingya citizenship and rendered them stateless.

The discriminatory policies intensified over the years, as the government increasingly treated the Rohingya as illegal immigrants, despite their long-standing historical presence in the region. The denial of citizenship rights severely restricted their access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities, perpetuating their marginalized status within Burmese society.

Ethnic and religious factors further complicated the issue. The predominantly Muslim identity of the Rohingya set them apart in a country where Buddhism is the dominant religion. The rise of Buddhist nationalism in Myanmar, particularly in the post-independence period, contributed to the perception of the Rohingya as outsiders and fueled anti-Muslim sentiments.

These historical dynamics laid the foundation for the present crisis, creating a cycle of discrimination, marginalization, and violence against the Rohingya. The denial of their rights and citizenship by successive Burmese governments set the stage for the contemporary challenges faced by the Rohingya, culminating in the 2017 military crackdown and the mass exodus of refugees to Bangladesh. Understanding this historical context is crucial for comprehending the complexities of the Rohingya issue and addressing its root causes.

Escalation of Violence

The escalation of the Rohingya issue in 2012 marked a significant and tragic turning point in the ongoing crisis, further deepening the plight of the Rohingya population in Rakhine State. The catalyst for the escalation was a series of violent clashes between the Rohingya Muslims and the Rakhine Buddhists, fueled by longstanding tensions, economic disparities, and deep-seated prejudices.

In June 2012, communal violence erupted in Rakhine State, resulting in the loss of thousands of lives and the displacement of over 100,000 people, predominantly Rohingya Muslims. The clashes led to the widespread burning of homes, destruction of villages, and reports of atrocities committed against the Rohingya population. This violence exacerbated the already precarious situation for the Rohingya, pushing them into squalid Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps.

The creation of these IDP camps was a consequence of the mass displacement resulting from the violence. These camps, characterized by overcrowded and unsanitary conditions, became places of immense suffering for the Rohingya population. The displaced individuals faced severe limitations on their freedom of movement, with restricted access to basic amenities such as healthcare, education, and economic opportunities.

The lack of adequate infrastructure and services within the IDP camps further intensified the humanitarian crisis. Limited access to healthcare meant that residents faced challenges in receiving proper medical attention, leading to the spread of diseases and worsening health conditions. The restricted access to education had long-term consequences for the younger generation, depriving them of essential learning opportunities and perpetuating cycles of poverty.

Economic opportunities for the displaced Rohingya were also severely curtailed, as they faced restrictions on employment and struggled to sustain themselves in the confined and impoverished conditions of the camps. The dire circumstances within the IDP camps not only highlighted the immediate consequences of the 2012 escalation but also underscored the systemic and long-term challenges faced by the Rohingya community.

The 2012 violence and its aftermath laid bare the urgent need for international attention and humanitarian intervention. It brought global awareness to the plight of the Rohingya and set the stage for subsequent escalations, including the more widespread and brutal violence that unfolded in 2017. The events of 2012, coupled with historical discrimination and marginalization, contribute to the complexity of the Rohingya issue and the challenges in finding a sustainable and just resolution to the crisis.

Mass Exodus and Refugee

The year 2017 marked a devastating and pivotal moment in the Rohingya crisis, as a military crackdown by the Myanmar government triggered a mass exodus of Rohingya refugees into Bangladesh. This series of events, often characterized as “ethnic cleansing” by numerous international observers and organizations, unfolded with severe and widespread human rights abuses.

The military crackdown, ostensibly in response to attacks by a Rohingya insurgent group on security posts, resulted in an overwhelmingly disproportionate use of force. Reports emerged of mass killings, sexual violence, and the deliberate burning of Rohingya villages. The scale and brutality of these atrocities shocked the world, drawing widespread condemnation and raising urgent calls for international intervention.

The United Nations described the situation as a “textbook example of ethnic cleansing,” emphasizing the deliberate and systematic nature of the violence against the Rohingya population. The term “ethnic cleansing” underscores the intent to forcibly remove a particular ethnic or religious group from a certain area, often accompanied by widespread atrocities and human rights violations.

The military crackdown forced hundreds of thousands of Rohingya to flee their homes in Rakhine State, seeking safety across the border in Bangladesh. The refugee influx reached unprecedented levels, creating one of the largest and most urgent humanitarian crises in recent history. The refugees, including women, children, and the elderly, embarked on perilous journeys, often crossing rivers and jungles on foot to reach safety.

The hastily established refugee camps in Bangladesh, particularly in Cox’s Bazar, became overcrowded and strained resources. The living conditions were dire, with limited access to shelter, clean water, food, and healthcare. The traumatized Rohingya refugees carried with them harrowing stories of violence and loss, further underscoring the urgent need for international assistance and accountability for the crimes committed against them.

The events of 2017 drew widespread condemnation from the international community, prompting calls for accountability and justice. The International Criminal Court (ICC) and the International Court of Justice (ICJ) initiated legal proceedings to address allegations of genocide and crimes against humanity committed by the Myanmar military. The Rohingya refugee crisis highlighted the interconnectedness of human rights, regional stability, and global responsibility, emphasizing the need for concerted efforts to address the root causes of the conflict and find a just and sustainable resolution for the Rohingya people.

International Response to the Rohingya

The Rohingya crisis has
garnered global attention and elicited responses from governments,
international organizations, and civil society. Some notable actions and
developments include:

United Nations and
International Tribunals:

The United Nations has condemned
Myanmar for its treatment of the Rohingya and has launched investigations into
allegations of genocide. The International Court of Justice (ICJ) heard a case
against Myanmar in 2019, where Gambia accused Myanmar of violating the Genocide
Convention. While the ICJ issued provisional measures, the long-term legal
proceedings are ongoing.

Humanitarian Assistance:

Numerous humanitarian
organizations, such as the UNHCR, have been providing assistance to the
Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. These organizations offer food, shelter,
healthcare, and education, but the overwhelming numbers have strained their

Sanctions and Diplomacy:

Several countries, including the
United States and the European Union, have imposed sanctions on Myanmar’s
military and government officials. Diplomatic efforts have been made to
encourage dialogue and reconciliation between the Myanmar government and the
Rohingya. However, progress has been slow.

Proposed Solutions:

Addressing the Rohingya issue
is a complex endeavor that requires a multi-faceted approach. Here are some
potential solutions:

Citizenship Rights and

1. Recognition of Rohingya as an Ethnic Group:

   – Myanmar should
officially recognize the Rohingya as an ethnic group within the country.
Acknowledging their distinct identity is essential for fostering inclusivity
and addressing historical grievances.

2. Reform of Discriminatory Policies and Laws:

   – The
discriminatory 1982 Citizenship Law, which stripped the Rohingya of citizenship
rights, must be revised. Reforms should be enacted to eliminate provisions that
perpetuate statelessness and marginalization based on ethnicity and religion.

3. Restoration of Citizenship Rights:

   – Rohingya individuals
should be granted full citizenship rights, ensuring their equal participation
in civic life, access to education, healthcare, and employment opportunities.
Restoring citizenship rights is fundamental to ending their statelessness and
addressing systemic discrimination.

4. Inclusive National Identity:

   – Efforts should be
made to cultivate an inclusive national identity in Myanmar that embraces the
diversity of its population. Promoting a sense of belonging for all ethnic and
religious communities, including the Rohingya, is crucial for building a
cohesive and united nation.

5. International Pressure and Diplomacy:

   – The international
community should continue to exert diplomatic pressure on Myanmar to reform
discriminatory policies. Bilateral and multilateral engagements, along with
sanctions if necessary, can encourage the government to prioritize inclusive
citizenship practices.

6. Engagement with Civil Society:

   – Civil society
organizations, both within Myanmar and internationally, can play a crucial role
in advocating for the rights of the Rohingya. Engaging with these groups can
help build a broader movement for citizenship rights and recognition.

7. National Reconciliation and Dialogue:

   – Initiating a
national dialogue and reconciliation process involving all ethnic and religious
communities is essential. This dialogue should address historical grievances,
promote understanding, and pave the way for the inclusion of the Rohingya in
Myanmar’s diverse social fabric.

8. Legal Reforms:

   – Legal reforms
should be implemented to eliminate discriminatory provisions in laws and
policies. This includes revisiting the constitution to ensure that it upholds
principles of equality, non-discrimination, and protection of minority rights.

9. UN and International Support:

   – The United
Nations and the international community should actively support Myanmar in its
efforts to reform citizenship laws and policies. Assistance in developing
inclusive legal frameworks and providing expertise in fostering social cohesion
can be valuable contributions.

10. Community-Based Solutions:

    – Encouraging
community-based initiatives that promote dialogue and understanding between
different ethnic and religious groups can contribute to building trust and
acceptance. These initiatives can be instrumental in fostering peaceful

11. Education and Awareness:

    – Educational
programs should be developed to raise awareness about the diverse cultural and
ethnic makeup of Myanmar. Incorporating inclusive curricula that reflect the
contributions of all communities can help counteract discriminatory narratives.

Addressing citizenship rights and recognition for the
Rohingya is not only a legal imperative but also a critical step towards
building a just and inclusive society in Myanmar. It requires a comprehensive
and sustained effort involving legal reforms, international collaboration, and
community engagement to pave the way for a more harmonious coexistence among
all ethnic and religious groups in the country.

Safe Repatriation:

1. International Oversight:

   – The repatriation
process should be conducted under the oversight of international organizations
and agencies, ensuring transparency, impartiality, and adherence to human
rights standards. Involvement from the United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees (UNHCR) and other relevant bodies is crucial to providing credibility
to the process.

2. Guarantees of Safety and Security:

   – Prior to
repatriation, Myanmar must provide concrete guarantees of safety and security
for returning Rohingya. This involves addressing concerns about the risk of
violence, discrimination, and persecution. International monitoring mechanisms
should be in place to ensure the protection of returnees.

3. Voluntariness and Informed Decision-Making:

   – Repatriation
should be a voluntary choice made by the Rohingya refugees, and they must be
fully informed about the conditions in Myanmar. Any form of coercion or
pressure should be strictly avoided, and the decision-making process should be
based on the free will of the individuals involved.

4. Consultation with the Rohingya Community:

   – Consultations
with the Rohingya community, including representatives and leaders, are
essential in shaping the repatriation process. Their perspectives and concerns
should be taken into account, and they should be active participants in
decisions affecting their return.

5. Addressing Root Causes:

   – Efforts should be
made to address the root causes of displacement, including discriminatory
policies and human rights abuses. Sustainable repatriation requires a
commitment to resolving the underlying issues that led to the crisis in the
first place.

6. Legal Protections:

   – Legal protections
for returnees must be guaranteed, including the restoration of citizenship
rights. Myanmar should take steps to ensure that the returnees are not
subjected to discrimination and have access to justice in case of grievances.

7. Infrastructure and Basic Services:

   – Adequate housing,
healthcare facilities, and educational opportunities must be established to
support the returning population. Infrastructure development is crucial for
creating conditions that facilitate a smooth reintegration process.

8. Economic Opportunities:

   – Sustainable
reintegration also requires the creation of economic opportunities for the
returnees. This involves initiatives to support livelihoods, vocational
training, and job placement programs to enable them to rebuild their lives and
contribute to their communities.

9. Community Reconciliation:

   – Community-level
reconciliation initiatives should be promoted to foster understanding and
harmony between different ethnic and religious groups. These efforts can
contribute to reducing tensions and promoting a sense of unity among diverse
communities in Myanmar.

10. Monitoring and Evaluation:

    – A robust
monitoring and evaluation system should be in place to assess the effectiveness
of the repatriation process. This involves tracking the well-being of
returnees, ensuring that their rights are protected, and addressing any
challenges that may arise during the reintegration period.

11. International Support:

    – The international
community should provide financial, logistical, and technical support to
facilitate the repatriation process. This includes contributions to
infrastructure development, humanitarian assistance, and capacity-building
efforts in Myanmar.

12. Media and Information Dissemination:

    – Transparent
communication and information dissemination are crucial to building trust among
Rohingya refugees regarding the conditions in Myanmar. Providing accurate
information about the repatriation process, including the steps taken to
address their concerns, is essential.

In summary, a safe and voluntary repatriation process
requires careful planning, international oversight, and a commitment to
addressing the root causes of displacement. It is crucial to prioritize the
safety, well-being, and rights of the Rohingya refugees, ensuring that their
return to Myanmar is dignified, sustainable, and conducive to rebuilding their
lives in their homeland.

 Accountability and Justice:

Addressing accountability for the atrocities committed against
the Rohingya is a crucial aspect of the international response to the crisis.
The following points underscore the importance of holding perpetrators
accountable and seeking justice:

a. International Criminal Court (ICC) and International
Court of Justice (ICJ): The ICC and ICJ have played significant roles in
addressing allegations of genocide and crimes against humanity in relation to
the Rohingya crisis. Legal proceedings, such as the case brought by Gambia at
the ICJ, are essential steps toward accountability. The international community
must continue to support these legal processes and ensure that they lead to
fair and impartial judgments.

b. Establishment of Independent Investigative Bodies:
Independent investigative bodies, including fact-finding missions and
commissions of inquiry, have been instrumental in documenting human rights
abuses. These bodies play a crucial role in collecting evidence, identifying
perpetrators, and building cases for legal action. Continued support for such initiatives
is vital for comprehensive accountability.

c. Sanctions and Targeted Measures: The imposition of
targeted sanctions on individuals and entities responsible for human rights
violations is an important tool in promoting accountability. Countries and
international bodies should consider measures such as travel bans and asset
freezes against Myanmar’s military leaders and officials implicated in the
atrocities, sending a clear message that impunity will not be tolerated.

d. National and Hybrid Tribunals: In addition to
international mechanisms, efforts should be made to explore national and hybrid
tribunals. This involves holding trials either in the domestic courts of the
country where the crimes occurred or in collaboration with international
bodies. Establishing such tribunals can contribute to a more localized form of
justice, addressing the needs and expectations of the affected communities.

e. Victim-Centered Approaches: Justice processes should be
victim-centered, ensuring the participation and representation of Rohingya
victims in legal proceedings. The establishment of mechanisms for reparations
and compensation is crucial for acknowledging the suffering of the victims and
providing a sense of justice and closure.

f. Deterrence and Prevention: Holding perpetrators
accountable serves as a deterrent against future human rights abuses. It sends
a powerful message that those responsible for such crimes will face
consequences. This not only contributes to justice for the Rohingya but also
works toward preventing the recurrence of similar atrocities in the future.

g. International Collaboration: Achieving accountability
requires international collaboration and cooperation. Countries, international
organizations, and civil society must work together to share information,
support legal processes, and ensure that justice is served. This collaborative
approach strengthens the effectiveness of accountability measures.

In summary, accountability and justice are integral
components of the international response to the Rohingya crisis. By supporting
legal actions, establishing independent investigative bodies, imposing
sanctions, and adopting victim-centered approaches, the international community
can contribute to addressing the root causes of the conflict and working toward
a more just and stable future for the Rohingya population.

4. Reconciliation and Dialogue

Promoting interethnic and
interreligious dialogue within Myanmar is vital for fostering reconciliation.
Civil society organizations, religious leaders, and international mediators can
play a significant role in bringing communities together and fostering trust.

5. International Cooperation

Global efforts to address the
Rohingya crisis should continue and intensify. The international community must
collaborate to pressure Myanmar to change its policies and to provide
humanitarian assistance to the Rohingya refugees. A coordinated approach can be
more effective in achieving lasting solutions.

The plight of the Rohingya people
serves as a stark reminder of the continuing challenges faced by marginalized
and persecuted communities across the world. This crisis represents not just a
regional concern but a global one, highlighting the pressing need for
international solidarity and coordinated efforts to address such complex humanitarian
issues. While efforts have been made to provide humanitarian assistance and
raise awareness, the root causes of the Rohingya problem must be addressed to
achieve lasting solutions. The Rohingya have endured years of suffering and
displacement, and their quest for justice and recognition must remain at the
forefront of international discourse.

Efforts to resolve the Rohingya
issue should be based on principles of human rights, justice, and dignity for
all. The recognition of their citizenship rights in Myanmar, the safe
repatriation of refugees, and the establishment of mechanisms for
accountability are not mere options but moral imperatives. Reconciliation and
interethnic dialogue within Myanmar should be encouraged, as building a society
where diversity is celebrated rather than suppressed is a vital step towards a
sustainable solution. The world must continue to press for change, and
governments, international organizations, and civil society must remain
steadfast in their commitment to finding a path to justice, peace, and
stability for the Rohingya community, a community that has endured untold
suffering and deserves a brighter future.


In conclusion, the Rohingya issue stands as a poignant reminder of the complexities and challenges inherent in addressing long-standing conflicts rooted in discrimination and persecution. The multifaceted approach outlined, encompassing citizenship rights, safe repatriation, accountability, reconciliation, and international cooperation, reflects the need for a comprehensive strategy to bring about lasting change.

While international efforts have drawn attention to the crisis, the road ahead remains arduous. The recognition of citizenship rights for the Rohingya is a fundamental step toward rectifying historical injustices, fostering inclusivity, and ensuring their equal participation in society. Simultaneously, the safe and voluntary repatriation process, overseen by international organizations, should prioritize the well-being and autonomy of the Rohingya, addressing their concerns and guaranteeing their safety upon return.

Accountability mechanisms, both at the international and national levels, are essential for redressing past atrocities and deterring future human rights violations. Justice should be sought not only for the sake of the Rohingya but also as a statement against impunity, emphasizing the importance of upholding human rights principles.

Reconciliation efforts, involving open dialogue and community-level initiatives, are pivotal for fostering understanding and unity among diverse ethnic and religious groups in Myanmar. It is through these processes that a foundation for a harmonious coexistence can be laid.

International cooperation, support, and continued advocacy are indispensable in navigating the complexities of the Rohingya crisis. The global community must remain steadfast in its commitment to finding a just and sustainable resolution, acknowledging the shared responsibility to protect human rights and promote peace.

As the world grapples with this humanitarian crisis, the plight of the Rohingya underscores the urgency of concerted efforts toward justice, peace, and stability. It is only through sustained dedication and collaborative action that a brighter future can be envisioned for the Rohingya community, one where their rights are respected, their dignity upheld, and their place in society secured.


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